Official Title: “Prevention of Recurrent Infections Caused by Community-Acquired Staphylococcus in Children 3 Months to 18 Years”
The primary purpose of this study is to determine if adding bleach baths to routine ways for prevention of Staph infections is helpful. The amount added is a very weak amount. This would provide a relatively inexpensive method to help prevent recurrent skin infections caused by the Staph germ. The investigators will also be studying how often Staphylococcus aureus lives in the nose, throat, and groin area.
- Study Type: Interventional
- Study Design: Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label, Primary Purpose: Treatment
- Study Primary Completion Date: June 2011
Detailed Clinical Trial Description
In many areas of the United States, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is now an established community pathogen (CA-MRSA). At Texas Children's Hospital (TCH), about 75% of S. aureus isolates recovered from healthy children with infections are CA-MRSA and > 90% of the CA-MRSA isolates are related to one clone, USA300, which also predominates throughout the U.S. From 8/05 to 7/06, 1400 children with CA-MRSA infection were seen at TCH; 60% were admitted to the hospital. Why the USA300 clone is so successful in spreading throughout the community is unclear, but it does harbor a unique set of genes not found in other S. aureus clones. The anterior nose in the most common area of the body colonized with S. aureus but it is not known if this is the primary site for colonization by CA-MRSA USA300 clone.
Approximately 3.5% of children at TCH have a proven recurrence of S. aureus infection within 12 months; we believe this is a minimal estimate and that overall at least 10% of children have recurrences. There is no consensus on the best strategies for preventing recurrent S. aureus infections or spread of S. aureus among family members. At TCH, in addition to routine preventative measures, we often recommend for the patients to take a bath at least twice a week in water to which one teaspoon of household bleach (Clorox) has been added per gallon of water. Anecdotally this approach has decreased the recurrence rate of S. aureus infections, but this common strategy among dermatologists has not been formally evaluated and is thus controversial.
The primary objective is to test the hypothesis that in children who have a community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (CA-SA) infection, sodium hypochlorite baths (Clorox) are a safe and effective component of a prevention strategy that will reduce recurrent medically attended skin and soft tissue infection (MA-SSI).
Secondary objectives are to test the hypotheses that the USA300 clone has a greater ability to colonize skin or mucosal sites compared with other S. aureus clones and that recurrent S. aureus infections in a child are more likely to be due to the same organism that caused the initial infection than an isolate that is different from the initial isolate as determined by molecular typing.
1. Determine the recurrence rate (over a 12 month period) of medically attended skin and soft tissue infection visits in children initially evaluated in the TCH Emergency Center for whom a 3 month prevention strategy includes taking a bath twice a week in water to which sodium hypochlorite (Clorox) has been added and the recurrence rate in children for whom a similar prevention strategy has been recommended but without the bath component.
2. Determine the recurrence rate (over a 12 month period) of skin and soft tissue infection caused by CA-S. aureus in children for whom a 3-month prevention strategy includes taking a bath twice a week in water to which sodium hypochlorite (Clorox) has been added and the recurrence rate in children for whom a similar prevention strategy has been recommended but without the bath component.
3. Determine the + rates of S. aureus colonization of the anterior nares, pharynx, and groin for children being evaluated in the emergency center of Texas Children's Hospital (TCH) or admitted to TCH with suspected S. aureus infections.
Interventions Used in this Clinical Trial
- Procedure: Routine Measures Group
- Cultures will be obtained from the anterior nares of the nose, the throat and the groin using separate culturette swabs. S. aureus isolates will be identified and antibiotic susceptibility determined. Isolates will subsequently undergo testing for susceptibility to methicillin to determine if the isolate is an MSSA or MRSA strain. All patients and parents will be instructed orally and provided written instructions about routine measures employed for the prevention of S. aureus skin infections.
- Procedure: Bleach Bath Group
- Cultures will be obtained from the anterior nares of the nose, the throat and the groin using culturette swabs. S. aureus isolates will be identified and antibiotic susceptibility determined. Isolates will subsequently undergo testing for susceptibility to methicillin to determine if the isolate is an MSSA or MRSA strain. Patients and parents will be instructed orally and provided written instructions about routine measures employed for the prevention of S. aureus skin infections. Patients will be given further oral and written instructions regarding clorox baths.
Arms, Groups and Cohorts in this Clinical Trial
- Experimental: Routine Measures
- Experimental: Bleach Baths
Outcome Measures for this Clinical Trial
- The reduction of medically attended skin and soft tissue infections (MA-SSI) which is defined as a skin or soft tissue infection that has been evaluated and treated by a medical professional in an office, clinic, urgent care or emergency center setting.
- Time Frame: 2011-2012
Safety Issue?: Yes
- Time Frame: 2011-2012
Criteria for Participation in this Clinical Trial
- Otherwise healthy children 3 months to 18 years seen in the emergency center of Texas Children's Hospital with suspected CA-S. aureus infections
- Have a lesion which can be cultured (abscess or cellulitis with drainage, invasive infections)
- Can be evaluated and treated in the emergency center and be followed as outpatients
- Can be admitted to the hospital
- Children less than 3 months old or greater than 18 years
- Immune deficiency or underlying condition other than reactive airway disease or simple eczema which is not being followed by a dermatologist
- Patient has a history of 2 or more previous skin or soft tissue infections
- Children with one previous episode whose family may have already employed the sodium hypochlorite baths
- Families without a bathtub or running water
- Families without a phone or primary care physician
- Families unable or unwilling to comply with the prevention measures
- Hypersensitivity to sodium hypochlorite
Gender Eligibility for this Clinical Trial: Both
Minimum Age for this Clinical Trial: 3 Months
Maximum Age for this Clinical Trial: 18 Years
Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted for this Clinical Trial: No
Clinical Trial Investigator Information
- Lead Sponsor
- Baylor College of Medicine
- Texas Children’s Hospital
- Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
- Sheldon L. Kaplan / Principal Investigator, Texas Children’s Hospital / Baylor College of Medicine
- Overall Official(s)
- Sheldon L Kaplan, MD, Principal Investigator, Baylor College of Medicine