Surgical Versus Non-surgical Staging of Lung Cancer

Brief Summary

Official Title: “A Prospective Multicenter Study Comparing Endobronchial and Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided FNA to Mediastinoscopy/Thoracoscopy in the Staging and Early Detection of Metastases in Lung Cancer”

About half of all lung cancers are caught after they have spread to nearby lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are small glands found throughout the body that remove bacteria and foreign particles (part of the immune system). A biopsy (tissue sample) can then be sent can be sent to the laboratory for testing. Biopsy results can determine if the cancer has spread (metastases) and to determine the best treatment for a patient with lung cancer.

The purpose of this study is to develop a better way to detect lung cancer earlier before it spreads. This study compares the traditional mediastinoscopy/thoracoscopy surgery with the newer combined Endobronchial Ultrasound (EBUS) and Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) -guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) to see if either is better for this purpose. Traditional medical practice is to surgically open the chest and biopsy suspicious lymph nodes (called a mediastinoscopy/thoracoscopy). Some medical centers have already started combining the use of EUS plus EBUS as a standard practice for performing needle biopsy of lymph nodes in the chest to stage and treat lung cancer.

Volunteers for this study have been diagnosed with known or suspected lung cancer, and will receive one of two choices to determine if their cancer has spread:

1. Traditional Surgical Mediastinoscopy/Thoracoscopy Mediastinoscopy is a surgical procedure that allows physicians to view areas of the chest(including the heart, vessels, lymph nodes, trachea, esophagus, and thymus). An endotracheal (within the trachea) tube is inserted followed by a small incision (cut) in the chest. A mediastinoscope is inserted through the incision to see the organs inside the mediastinum and to collect tissue samples. Mediastinoscopy can be used to detect or stage cancer.

Thoracoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves insertion of a thorascope through a very small incision in the chest wall. A thorascope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and lens which usually has a tool for removing tissue. This makes it possible to examine the lungs or other structures in the chest cavity, without making a large incision.

2. EBUS combined with EUS-guided FNA EUS involves the use of a special endoscope fitted with an ultrasound processor at its tip. During EUS, images of surrounding lymph nodes can be obtained and a small needle can be guided through the esophagus into suspicious nodes to biopsy lymph nodes in the chest. Other research studies have shown that using EUS to guide needle biopsy of lymph nodes in the chest is equally if not more accurate than surgical biopsy. However, use of EUS for needle biopsy can limit what is seen by the physician and also limit the sampling of lymph nodes in front of the trachea. EBUS involves the use of a small ultrasound scope that is passed through the opening of the trachea and into the airways. EBUS combined with EUS is a less invasive procedure that provides full view of the lymph nodes in the chest area.

  • Study Type: Interventional
  • Study Design: Allocation: Randomized, Endpoint Classification: Safety/Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Open Label
  • Study Primary Completion Date: December 2010

Interventions Used in this Clinical Trial

  • Procedure: Integrated Staging for Early Detection of Metastases in Lung Cancer
    • To determine the accuracy of EBUS/EUS-guided FNA when compared with surgical mediastinoscopy/thoracoscopy

Arms, Groups and Cohorts in this Clinical Trial

  • Active Comparator: EUS/EBUS with FNA
    • EUS/EBUS staging will be performed to evaluate for the presence of mediastinal adenopathy. Each lymph node will be characterized according to published criteria. Staging will follow the TNM system of the AJCC. If present and accessible, at least one lymph node from each accessible station will be aspirated with a separate fine needle using routine FNA and cytological techniques. If multiple lymph nodes are present in a single station, the largest lymph node from that location will be sampled. Patients with cytologically proven mediastinal lymph node metastases (N2 or 3), or those with mediastinal invasion of tumor (T4), will be treated according to standard clinical practice (typically chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy). All complications, morbidity, length of stay attributed to the staging procedures will be recorded at 30 days, or at the time of surgery, whichever is first. All patients will will subsequently undergo surgical resection and complete mediastinal lymph node dissection.
  • Active Comparator: Surgical Mediastinoscopy
    • Within two months following CT scan, surgical mediastinoscopy will be performed to evaluate for the presence of mediastinal adenopathy. Each lymph node will be characterized according to published criteria. Staging will follow the TNM system of the AJCC. Patients with cytologically proven mediastinal lymph node metastases (N2 or 3), or those with mediastinal invasion of tumor (T4), will be treated according to standard clinical practice (typically chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy). All complications, morbidity, length of stay attributed to the diagnostic method (medical or surgical) used for staging will be recorded at 30 days, or at the time of surgery, whichever is first. All patients will will subsequently undergo surgical resection and complete mediastinal lymph node dissection.

Outcome Measures for this Clinical Trial

Primary Measures

  • Accuracy of each arm for the staging of lung cancer
    • Time Frame: Two years
      Safety Issue?: No

Secondary Measures

  • Complication rates for each of the diagnostic strategies
    • Time Frame: At 30 days or at the time of surgery, whichever is first.
      Safety Issue?: No

Criteria for Participation in this Clinical Trial

Inclusion Criteria

  • Require either surgical or minimally invasive evaluation (EUS/EBUS) of the mediastinum
  • Are medically fit to undergo surgery
  • Possess known or suspected non-small cell carcinoma of the lung
  • Have had PET/CT scan within 45 days of randomization
  • Are eligible for complete mediastinal lymph node dissection at surgery if clinically indicated (determined at surgery)

Exclusion Criteria

  • Pathologically documented metastatic disease
  • History of malignancy within 5 years other than (skin) basal cell carcinoma
  • Bulky mediastinal lymphadenopathy defined as lymph node > 2.0 cm in short axis diameter or contralateral adenopathy or direct invasion mediastinum or great vessels (T4 disease) or have a malignant pleural effusion.
  • Peripheral T1 tumors with radiographically normal mediastinum on PET/CT.

Gender Eligibility for this Clinical Trial: Both

Minimum Age for this Clinical Trial: 21 Years

Maximum Age for this Clinical Trial: N/A

Are Healthy Volunteers Accepted for this Clinical Trial: No

Clinical Trial Investigator Information

  • Lead Sponsor
    • Medical University of South Carolina
  • Collaborator
    • Mayo Clinic
  • Provider of Information About this Clinical Study
    • Gerard A. Silvestri MD, Medical University of South Carolina
  • Overall Official(s)
    • Gerard A Silvestri, MD, Principal Investigator, Medical University of South Carolina
    • Brenda J Hoffman, MD, Principal Investigator, Medical University of South Carolina

Source

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The URL of this page is:
http://clinicaltrialsfeeds.org/clinical-trials/show/NCT01117714